On 17 December, 1862, ‘General Orders No. 11’, issued under General Grant’s own signature, became the most sweeping anti-Jewish regulation in all American history. By its terms, all Jews, ‘as a class’, were expelled from the vast war zone stretching from northern Mississippi to Cairo, Illinois, and from the Mississippi to the Tennessee River. This decree revealed suppressed fears of the American Jewish Community that, following the Emancipation Proclamation, Jews would replace Blacks as the most despised minority.
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